International Seminar on Iraq’s security and political future

Monday October 6th, 2014 – at the Assemblée Nationale, Paris, France.

The Académie de Géopolitique de Paris (AGP), specialized in the research and analysis of today world ‘s geopolitical questions, organises this Seminar in order to focus on the profound nature of the irakian crisis, the military and strategic characteristics of the on going conflict and to describe precisely the various traditional and recent belligerents,either state or non state.
We have the honour and privilege to to welcome on this occasion a geat number of members of the diplomatic corps from many countrie such as their Excellencies the Ambassadors, the Ministers councillors, , the chiefs of missions,the first secretaries; the chargés d’affaires of Bahrein, Bolivia, Burma,Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, China, Cuba, Finland, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Japan, Kosovo, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Quatar, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Serbia, Sweden, Tchec Republic, Turkey. This event was opened by the Chairman of the AGP who expressed his grateful appreciation to the participants, most particularly Mr Jacques Myard, Member of Parliament, for his much appreciated collaboration.

Below,please find a short summary of Jacques Myard’s opening speech:

Since a number of years and singularly a few months, Iraq has become an international, regional and transnational issue, mother of all risks,challenges and hence also of all traps
In general principle, it is important to underline the risks we have to face obviously from the terrorists themselves.This is a permanent challenge which has recently become more serious with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL); The latter, Daech is in reality,similar to a share corporation in which many regional forces have issued shares. Daesh is not born through spontaneous generation !
The first trap is the amalgam that could result from the confusion with islam.We are all aware that Islam as proclaimed and practised by Daesch doesn’t represent Islam in its whole.
The second trap resides in the sequencial effect which this crisis can generate.I think that combatting Daech with a US led Coalition contains the risk of being carried away toward a military option.Or, French history has demonstrated,through the colonial wars, that there is a right of poursuit…
The third trap is the risk for this conflict to be perceived as the war of the West against Islam! Or in reality,this is not the war against a religion, but on the contrary against fanaticism.
The objective is that this war against terrorism be first of all effected by the regional powers themselves : this is first of all the war of the irakians,the syrians but also of those powers that have played with fire in this region and locally and have to review their action.One cannot just ignore the ambiguity of the policy of Qatar,Saudi Arabia or Turkey.We must have the courage to tell these countries,their possible partnership with France and some other European states nothwithstanding, that they’d better have to change their policy and that we would no longer guarantee their position.
This means that we have to draw a certain number of lessons from our mistakes in the syrian conflict. Indeed, Bachaar is not an exemplar democrat,he may even be the opposite thereof but it was a mistake to make people believe that his regime would fall in a few days.It is now clear that if Bachaar El Assad can disturb the international community,he may be substituted by a much more serious danger that will destabilize the whole region.One has thus to open the eyes on the entire policy on Syria. There is another challenge which is to redraw the maps of the local states and the frontiers of this zone.If the integrity of the frontiers is not an intangible diktat, it is however necessary to avoid that a disorganization of the structures of the states may increase the instability of the whole region at a sensible time.
It is going to be extremely difficult for certain states to recover a complete national unity,in the case namely of Syria and Iraq. We see well the powerful centrifugal forces at work and I would have to warn those who mount hypotheses, particularly on the case of Kurdistan.
Our objective is to induce the local powers to settle this conflict and to stop,namely in the case of the Syrian conflict,to privilege their own interests to the detriment of the others.
It is clear that we will not spare the return of Islam if we want to stabilize the zone.There is surely the Iranian problem that we must deal with, concerning the issue of nuclear dissimulated proliferation, but with regard to the stability of the zone, the combat of terrorism or the control of the evolution of the international situation,Iran is an essential player, party to this issue.This means that the states such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar will have to accept this ,take into account the reality of the situation and stop the ambiguity of their own policy.
These challenges are important because we now live in a planetary village.The question of the near and Middle East which the French and Europeans perceived as very far because of their other concerns now reemerges with force.
Thus,French foreign policy must, by a multi-bilateral action, be concentrated on the near and middle East because world peace is at stake in this region.

Iraq constitutes in the Middle East a very varied ethnic and religious mosaic and occupies a particular strategic position in this part of the world. It holds an important place in world civilization and contains in its subsoil considerable oil reserves.
Apart from the Kurds, the Assyrian and Turkomene minorities have inhabited this land since times immemorial. Besides Islam, ancient faiths such as Sabeism and Yezidism have coexisted along with Christianity, Judaism and different Islamic communities despite their important ethnic and religious diversities. The chiites however constitute the largest majority. But, since the Ottoman empire till the fall of the Baasist regime, the politics and administration of the country were exclusively in the hands of the Sunnites. This factor played an important role in the events of the last ten years and still impacts significantly the crisis that Iraq experiences.
The radical islamists represent a real danger for the security and stability of the Middle East and the whole world. The regional and international efforts against terrorism and the propagation of extremism are therefore necessary and must be pursued. DAESH is neither a state nor Islamic but is really a sophisticated terrorist organization among the most dangerous.
It is now time that regional and international actors make an in depth and global analysis of extremism and terrorism in the Near East and North Africa, under the mediation of the UN and to examine the consequences of the aggressions and wars of the past, to study the causes of the failure of the negotiations on the very ancient conflicts, namely the insufficient progress of the Arab peace initiative.
We expect that during this seminar on this important international hot issue, you the reputed researchers, university scholars and analysts assembled here today participate actively through your exchange of ideas and focus on the new ethnic and religious configurations in the region and on the international level, in the light of the power games between the countries involved, from Iran to the US, from Saudi Arabia to Turkey as well as among the engaged international institutions from the UN to the E.U.

Alain CORVEZ, Consultant on International Strategy : « The situation in Iraq ».
The global evolution of the world strategic situation has contributed to the feeling of the « delegitimation » of the medias,the national and international political authorities among the populations. The dissimulation of the strategic ambitions of the great powers and of the transnational organizations under the nice cover of moralization has worked for a while
Thanks to the manipulation of emotions and good feelings. The apex of this strategy is to create artificially a situation of crisis and permanent exception. We have seen however recently a process of rejection of the established systems which seem, in the eyes of the populations, unable to solve any of the strategic problems of our time. For example; it is now proven that the atlantist ideological constraint has pushed French and European geopolitics towards objectives that are not really theirs. Likewise, we have to place the situations of Iraq and Syria in a larger international geopolitical dimensions in which are confronted strategic interests of competing regional and international powers.
Thus; the alliance between the US and the rigorist islam of Wahhabism has never been contradicted and we know that right from the start, islamist terrorism has been supported by the Saudi Arabs, later on by the Quataris and also by Turkey opportunistically. If DAESH ‘s blitzkrieg offensive (Daouled al Islamiyeh fi al Irak wa bilad al Sham) was under CIA control, the reason was to overthrow Maliki or ,at least, to induce him to make major concessions he had persistently refused, to set up a consensus government. The objective was not to take Bagdad and the paradoxical alliance between an Islamic organization and a laic party was pure tactics.
Maliki’s overtures to Russia and China had nothing to please the americans and it became important for Washington to resume the control of Bagdad that had slipped away out of American control. But after DAESH‘s shocking territorial conquests and Maliki’s departure, the americans decided to stop Daesh‘s attacks with heavy air strikes and to form an international coalition designed to fight the Islamic organization with the support of world public opinion, horrified by widely video broadcast scenes of hostage decapitations. Thus, the role of Iran, Turkey and the Kurds was re assessed and there is the temptation for the americans to make use of this operation to overthrow the legal authority in Damas by bypassing the displayed objectives.

Bassam TAHHAN, Professor of geostrategy at l’École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées (Ensta) : « La Roadmap of the califat Albaghdadi ».
The caliphe Al-Baghdadi’s 6 authentified speeches show his intention to make his Ben Laden‘s program in its two objectives : to attack the West and its arab and moslem allies. Priority goes to moslem countries, to begin with the Islamic Republic of Iran, qualified as heretic follower of Mahomet ‘s son in law Ali, founder of chiism and estranged from the Sunna and the prophet of Islam. The logical result is the war against Assad‘s Syria, Maliki‘s Iraq and the Hezbollah. One can see the road map from his six discourses. The new thing as compared to Al Qaida is the universalism of the Caliphe’s call.
Al – Baghdadi tries to create an IS label (Islamic state) that can be supported by any moslem throughout the world, to fight the “ ennemies of Islam “ through terrorist attacks. We are going to analyse the details of this road map and see its world wide strategic consequences. The first red line not to cross is the universality of his actions and the new caliphe has attracted his donors’s ire when he bypassed this line. As long as the secret services and allies of the US could manipulate against Maliki or Iran, the caliphe could receive political and financial supports. As a matter of fact, he wanted to play his way, alone and far from his donors. The US and Turkey and all the petrodollar monarchies realized that he had gone too far away from them, threatening their interests. France saw there the opportunity to come back to the markets of the Gulf, particularly the irakian one and to try again to overthrow Assad. The great losers remain the Sunnite moslems because they will have served as cannon fodder of all those wars whose issue remains uncertain for all the belligerents.

Pierre RAZOUX, Director of research at l’Institut de Recherche Stratégique de l’Ecole Militaire (IRSEM) : « Is A regional concerted combat strategy against the Islamic State (Daesh) conceivable ? »

A new geopolitical concept in the Middle East is possible with the existing entente between the west, the arab states, Iran and why not Russia against the Islamic State.We want to explain why and how the regional containment strategy, eventually followed by a vast military offensive would represent numerous advantages but at the time many ambiguities and hesitations. It is therefore urgent to clear the system of representation: just war, crusade or Djihad and that of the intentions, namely the concerted action of Iran, Iraq and Syria should not appear to the Gulf monarchies as a revenge of the Chiite minority over the Sunnite majority.
The character of the combat against the Islamic state constitutes a second important ambiguity because the long term solution could not be strictly security and military but political in view of the irakian internal situation ( the question of the Sunnite tribes) of the Syrian interrnal situation but also of the region such as arab chiefs against the moslem brothers, the israelo-Palestinian conflict, the Syrian kurd fighters, the Turks and Iranians and those respective states and also the economical interests linked to the fighting zones.
There is of course ,in addition, the need for a political dialogue between the West and Iran and Syria namely because Tehran is today the sole interlocutor capable of influencing favorably three of the main actors (Syria, Iraq and the autonomous irakian Kurdistan) to form a regional coalition designed to roll back the Islamic state. Working on the original causes, the hope for a political solution lies in reducing considerably the number of the IS fighters, to siphon off its forces and to cut the ideological grass under its feet. Turkey, however, has no geopolitical nor strategic nor economical interest that the Caliphat reduce its pressure on its traditional adversaries, King Abdallah II must take into account the large number of arab refugees, namely from Iraq and Syria, the support of a section of his population for the Islamic theses and the shelter they would offer to the dormant Djihadist groups inclined toward the IS, Egypt and north African states are happy with this fixing pole that attracts their own pro Djihad terrorists ; the leaders of Saudi Arabia are aware that a certain number of Saudi private foundations have financed the Djihadists fighting in Iraq and Syria and that they themselves must fear the boomerang effect that may follow their massive return to the kingdom even if the saudi authorities have seen initially some advantage in the irruption of the IS which has effectively contributed to the weakening of their Iranian ennemies, of their irakian and syrian adversaries and their rival turks. But these private foundations remain very influential in the kingdom and the strategic priority of the reigning family remains the perennity of the monarchy, irreconcilable with the concept of Caliphat, and the stability of the Arabic peninsula The same great ambiguity exists in the positions of the Israelis, the europeans and the americans. Apart from its real and observable advantages, the IS remains hostage of 5 major weaknesses : its isolation,the dispersion of its troops,the multiplicity of its major axes of actions,the absence of any air force and the deep conviction of its enemies as to obtain its absolute eradication.
For these, it is necessary to act together and simultaneously on all the fronts (Syrian,kurd and irakian) with adequate military means as to contain and asphyxiate the IS progressively. But,this requires that Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey and the ịrakian autonomous Kurdistan would agree beforehand to act together with the support of the western powers.

Ali al-YAQOBI, Lawyer and irakian constitutionnal researcher « Irakian federalism face to current events ».
Federalism is the most impressive principle that was adopted in 2005. Any study on the conditions of its adoption in Iraq cannot ignore the reality of this country. Since the foundation of the modern irakian state in the 1920 ‘s, the centralized unitary form of the state has failed to assemble the irakians.
Under the monarchy and then the republic until the fall of President Saddam Hussein in 2003, the kurds represented the most important challenge for a succession of regimes
The choice of federalism and the recognition of Kurdistan as a federal regional unit imposed themselves on Irak by necessity. Thus, the 2005 constitution established a completely new form of relation with the kurd region, recognizing the country’s ethnic and linguistic diversity with two official langues i.e Arab and Kurd while preserving the territorial limits of the country.
Or ,if the ethnic and political factors were united to create a federal region for the kurds as a solution to the ethnic diversity, things did not go that way such as to establish federal districts for the sunnites and the chiites. Numerous factors thus retarded the poursuit of the construction of the federal state.The door remains however open for this possibility in the future which is to say that the constituants have not rejected the federal option for the remaining units of the country. It will always be possible to create other federal districts following the requests of the departments subject to a referendum organized among the concerned populations.
Its current unfinished status nothwithstanding,federalism has just demonstrated that it is a sufficiently solid form of state structure as to be able to maintain the institutions in the turmoil hitting Irak with the invasion of Daesh,the Islamic State (IS)
We can say that the factors which will impact the federal structure of Irak in the future are the internal and external difficulties due to the geopolitical environment. These factors are in the centre of this essay.

Rector Gérard-François DUMONT, Professor at Sorbonne University : « Iraq face to its religious and ethnic questions».
Why is Iraq a multi-religious and pluri-ethnic state ? the most frequently given answer is to see in this situation the result of past decisions imposed from outside when the frontiers of the country were fixed. This is not false. The geopolitical events of the beginning of the 20th Century, namely the developments following the 1st World War, are essential for the frontier geography of the Middle East. Here, one should not limit oneself to the Sykes-Picot Accords but should also take into account, on one hand, geopolitical developments in the United States of America and on the other, the Franco-british negotiations in which both Clémenceau and Lloyd George took part in 1920.
But if this answer is true, one should not forget that the plurireligious and pluriethnic character of Iraq is not only due to its frontiers as fixed in 1920, but also the consequence of the more ancient history of the territories composing this country, a very old indeed history that explains the propagation of the religions of the Books but tells equally numerous diverging theological choices within first christianity and then Islam, these choices also engendering other religious beliefs.
In globo, Iraq is now a pluri-religious and pluri-ethnic country not only because of the partition imposed from outside but also as a result of its own history. One has to consider also the second element (history) so as to be able to find again the path toward social concord, profitable to irakians‘s common good and more generally to the Middle East.
Un débat général très riche avec la salle s’en est suivi où les différents intervenants ont répondu aux diverses questions du public.
A large discussion with the audience ensued where different stakeholders have answered to various questions from the audience.

Jean-Michel VERNOCHET, writer and politologue :« The ideological Roots of the Islamic State (IS) »
The Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and the Levant, Daesch in Arabic irrupted into the international scene with the announcement made in Mossoul on June 28th 2014 by Abou Bakr al- Baghdadi al – Husseini al-Koraichi who pretended descending from the tribe of the Prophet, of the restoration of the Caliphat, supreme temporal and spiritual power over all the Umma, the Universal Community of the moslems. This Authority had been abolished in 1924 by Mustapha Kemal, also popularly called Ataturk and was not restored by the Saudis, self proclaimed “ guardians of the Holy places “ after their conquest of Mecca and Medina in autumn 1925.
IS, Daesch has existed since 2007 and constitutes at the present time a real embryonic state with genuine infrastructures that would enable it to administer, to the best of its need, the territories its troops have conquered recently in the north of Iraq and Syria. Or, on the occasion of the tragic events in Iraq and Syria, we see clearly that an intestine war is storming within Islam. This war pits the conventional, popular and classic Islam plus chiite Islam and other varied esoteric soufis currents against extremist forms of islam, a fanatic and rogue islam, largely foreign to Islam and often called Djihadism, takfirism or hidden under the cover of Salafism, Salafiya, or the imitation of the life of the prophet‘s companions.
In fact, today, all these currents are the numerous variants of one single and same ideology,i.e Wahhabism which is the official religious doctrine of Saudi Arabia and Qatar.This is a vilified falsification of Islam which tries to confuse the geopolitical cards but above all, endeavours to become the new orthodoxy of Islam throughout the world, constituting thus a real threat for the modern world, moslem or not. This is why, we have to explore the ideological roots of all organizations availing themselves of Djihadism.

Maître Elie HATEM, Lawyer, Professor at La Faculté Libre de Droit, d’Économie et de Gestion de Paris (FALCO) : « The end of « Sykes-Picot? ».
The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIIL) has named its military and media campaign “ Destroy the Sykes-Pico Accords”. On the ground, it fights the chiites,the Christians,the Kurds ,declaring the destruction of the frontiers between Iraq and Syria. Are we watching the re partitioning of the Near and Middle East into religious entities ? In the years 1970’s,at the beginning of the war in Lebanon, local medias unveiled already the Kissinger Plan, after the name of the former American secretary of state of that time, Henri Kissinger, who succeeded to William Rogers.
That plan foresaw the current situation in this part of the world: Destabilization of Lebanon, Iraq-iran war, invasion of Iraq, destitution of Saddam Hussein, sanctions against Iran, “Arab Spring”, destabilization of Syria, emergence of the ISIIL and resumed tension between the Palestinians and Israelis : what relation and what objective ?

Jozef Antoni HABER, Professor Emeritus at l’Université Jean MONNET( Poland) :« The Globalization of Irakian security »
The security of Iraq is part of the global security system. Today, international relations are characterized by the existence of a complex interdependence network. Since the reunification of Germany and its economico-political transformation, eastern and central Europe have in their large majority adopted the atlantist strategic view point, resulting in their entry into NATO and participation in the war against Iraq and Saddam Hussain. This development has engendered many political, military and economic consequences. Public opinion was split by this participation to the war in Iraq. Today, the mass medias are busy with the conflict between Ukraina and Russia because it is not far from the frontiers of Central Europe. Iraq, with its internal problems is viewed as a destabilized country in conflict with the IS and the terrorist forces. The countries of central and eastern Europe are engaged in Afghanistan and have to prepare for the defence against a hypothetical Russian aggression and are thus prevented from taking any interest in the security of Iraq. This is a foreign policy mistake not only from eastern and central European countries but also for the European Union’s European neighbourhood policy.

Pierre BERTHELOT, teacher-researcher associated with l’Institut Français d’Analyse Stratégique and coordinator of the study group “Grande Méditerranée” at the Institute Prospective and Security in Europe : « Water, strategic issue of the irakian conflict ? »
Whereas the Iraq conflict, the more recent one sparked off by the irruption of the IS onto the forefront, or the older one which started with the US intervention in 2003, is most often analysed in essentially strategic and political considerations, it is less considered from the economical view point and almost never under the angle of hydropolitics. Or, this conflict is an old issue, with recurring tensions observed with Iraq‘s neighbours. The recent attempt by the radical islamists to take the control of the very important Mossoul dam has reminded us that those who command the waters of this dry land control in fact the country‘s destiny.
First of all one has to remind oneself of the importance of this issue beacause, on the regional level, Turkey and Syria whose relations with Iraq are sensitive condition the flow of water from the Tigris and Euphratus and that on the local level a section of the southern marshes had been dried up by Saddam Hussain because it had provided the chiite insurgents with shelters.
Then, one has to assess the risks to see the Djihadists seize the control of the main sources of water of the country and the uses that they could make out of it. In this respect, it seems that the international coalition is aware of this danger because it supported the deployment of kurd forces out of their traditional zone of influence in order to secure the dam under the IS threat of destruction, turning water into arms, rationing it or not delivering it under optimal sanitary conditions.
Finally, the measures put forward by the iraq government in the future to acquire more hydric autonomy and to secure its “blue gold” will be discussed in the last part of this essay .In effect, the stability of the country and the reconquest of the lost territories depend as much on a new political equation as on the promotion of decent living conditions and the revalorization of agriculture.

Général (2S) Henri PARIS, Chairman of Démocraties : « Geopolitics and geostrategy of Kurdistan »
Kurdistan, land of the Kurds,is a geographical entity with vague land contours the mass of which spreads over the south-east of Turkey, the north west of Iran and the north East of Syria. According to different interpretations, ,Kurdistan’s area would be about 503 000 km2 to 550 000 k2 with a population of about 23 to 30 millions. Small kurd minorities live in Transcaucasia and Turkmenistan. Kurds, in massive majority are sunnites, a small minority, the Yezidi practicing a confession close to Zoroastrism.
Kurdistan has no real political existence, being just a virtual state: a people without state.In 1946 – 1947,the Mahabad kurd republic came to existence under the aegis of the soviets.
The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10th 1920 had provided for an independent Kurdistan following the Sykes – Picot accords of May 16th 1916 but this treaty was replaced by that of Lausanne of June 24th 1923 consecutively to the victory of Mustapha Kemal and the reversal of the French policy. The majority of the kurd population, about 17 millions, live in Turkey.
The Iraq Federation comprises a kurd territorial entity, subdivided in 2 regions, one centered around Erbil under the direction of the Democratic Party of Kurdistan (DPK) presided by Massoud Barzani.
The second region centers around Souleymaniyé with the patriotic Union of Kurdistan ( PUK) under the direction of Talabani, President of the Republic of Iraq.
The self proclaimed IS (Daesh) spreads over kurd zones in Syria and Iraq; this is the reason why the Djihadists are objectively the ennemies of the kurds. Western strategy targets the destruction of the IS and is founded solely on air strikes.
Or these strikes (doctrine Douet) are not good without infantry on the ground which the West refuses to send. The Iraq Army is near complete deliquescence and the only good force is the Kurdish Peshmergas (National guards). The operation is delicate because the Turks fear that kurd autonomy may grow stronger and end up with independence that may cut the south east from Turkey.
The PKK, the dominant kurd party in Turkey is hors la loi and accused of terrorism and its leader, Ocalan has been in prison for the last ten years.
This poses serious problems for the campaign against the auto proclaimed Caliphat Daech.

Steven EKOVICH, Professor at the American University in Paris “Barack OBAMA face to his irakian quagmire”
The departure of the american forces from Iraq, due to Washington’s failure to negotiate an immunity accord with the Iraq government removed an influence leverage which would have eventually made possible a more stable transition by maintaining on the Iraq theatre a dissuasive intervention force and an instrument of pressure on the Maliki cabinet in order to secure a democratic and inclusive government. One of the harmful consequences of this failure is the spectacular attack of the IS which could have rallied the desperate Sunnite community, some tribes and to mobilize the former officers of Saddam Hussain’s army. Obama‘s hesitations face to the deteriorating situation in Syria fed the momentum of the IS. Now, he finds himself in a paradoxical situation of supporting an Iraq chiite government close to the Iranian regime !. US military operations in Iraq seem to run parallelly to Iranian forces sent to Iraq, all this without any coordination. The same thing is going on in Syria where the white House tries not to show any coordination with the Assad regime while helping more certain elements of his opposition. This situation is straining the relations with certain US allies like Saudi Arabia who were already worried about the issue of the negotiation on the Iranian nuclear program. Confronted with such a complicated regional situation and caught in such a dense strategic fog, President B. Obama finds with difficulty his marks in order to establish an overall regional strategy.

Lakdar LAHCINE, Chairman of the Université de la Méditerranée – Union of the Mediterranean (Italy) : « The security threat from the Western Mediterranean to the Arabo-Persian Gulf »
Divide to rule ! the old roman saying performs extremely well to break up the arab world : The latter’s crumbling profits directly the USA and the very near Europeans of the European Union to prevent the renaissance of the Arab nation and its rise, with Iran and Turkey as an emerging power tomorrow.
This is the perspectives in which one must see the last blips and events of the civil war ruining both Iraq and Syria, the latter being guided by the above mentioned countries , i.e the US & the EU which are now ready to play the fire squads after being pyromaniac in a region ranging from the western Mediterranean to the Arabo- Persian gulf and which have contributed to their destruction.
This fire risks getting out of control under the impetuous winds of political Islamism which has started security fires everywhere from the Mediterranean to western Europe, still relatively spared.
Daesh, that France today thinks politically correct to name likewisey, is the cancer inoculated into the arab geography, among inter alia,the avatars of US policy in the arab world, following franco british colonial strategy consecutive to the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, preceded itself by the latter’s defeat in the 1st World War that engendered the Sykes-Picot Accords in May 1916, further aggravated by the proven treasons of all the the Arabic Peninsula monarchies, set up for this occasion in order to have people forget the concept of the Arab Nation.

International Seminar on Iraq's security and political future-2

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